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Laminar Flows & Cymatic Bowls: Situation Normal at Glastonbury Festival

This festival is a strange place. A wonderful collection of ideas and expressions like no other. Put together by massively professional waifs and strays, who have hard earned the prestigious right to wear that accolade.

We are tasked with creating a garden area for the artists and speakers appearing on the Leftfield stage. A mixture of pop and politics, with debates and talks earlier in the day, followed by bands and performers later in the evening.

This is our second year of creating this area. However it is our first year of utilizing water in the installation.

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Some years ago, Whilst on holiday with my family I visited the Epcot Centre in Florida. Epcot was originally developed by Walt Disney as a vision of a utopian future, sadly this vision was never completely realized and the centre has developed into a sort of permanent ‘worlds fair’ with exhibitions and events celebrating enterprise, imagination and the development of ideas for the benefit of future generations.

A plaque outside Epcot reads as follows:

To all who come to this place of joy, hope and friendship, welcome.

Epcot Center is inspired by Walt Disney’s creative genius. Here, human achievements are celebrated through imagination, the wonders of enterprise, and concepts of a future that promises new and exciting benefits for all.

May Epcot Center entertain, inform and inspire. And, above all, may it instill a new sense of belief and pride in man’s ability to shape a world that offers hope to people everywhere.

 Sifting through the Disney melodrama the underlying message is one that I would agree with. I have always believed that the future is built on imagination and that it is imagination that inspires development and enterprise.

Most of the park was old and outdated, like stepping back to the 1950s. However, the one thing that struck me was the water.

There was water everywhere. It flowed and pooled all around you, rills and streams running into vast shallow lakes, fountains and jets casting water everywhere. There were waterfalls which ran backwards, innumerable jets mounted in long sinusoidal sweeps hurling white water back up over a cliff and into a huge lake filled with stepping stones and cast dimes. There were jets of water which arched above you, not like water at all, more like silvery life forms gently swaying in the delicate breeze. Every now and then a single splash would break the illusion and re-affirm in your mind that this was actually water and not some strange Disney witchcraft!

There were jets mounted unseen along pathways, which would fire globulous, almost gravity defying shapes across your path as you walked. Firing in sequence as you passed, giving the appearance that the water was springing from place to place.

It was wonderful.

I decided there and then that one day I would build something like this.

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For me, water has always been fascinating in so many different ways. I have based my entire career on this fascination. However, it is not simply its ecology that inspires me to work with it. I am equally inspired by its physical properties, by its science.

As a medium, water is a very unusual. It is one of only five chemicals which occurs on earth in a natural liquid state. Water expands as it cools, becoming less dense in a solid state which from a physics point of view is mind boggling! It has the ability to travel against gravity in specific settings, an occurrence known as capillary action. This is how water travels up plant stems.

It is a very simple chemical consisting of just two elements, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

Also, it covers 70% of our planet and makes up 60% of our bodies. Which probably makes it important.

There is something about water that fascinates people. People are drawn to its sound and it has always seemed to me that people are also drawn to touch it.

So, some years later we were asked to do an art installation for Beautiful Days Festival in Devon. We were asked to create a garden space for a public area.

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It was then that we decided to try to put together something similar to the Epcot water jets.

Some research and development enabled us to create a few prototype jets.

These jets exploit properties of the ‘flow’ of water. It is a little difficult to explain, but essentially in a standard water flow, the molecules of water are moving in lots of different directions. Imagine a box of ping pong balls on a train. The balls will be moving within the box, bouncing, colliding and repelling in lots of different directions, this is similar to water molecules within a flow. The train itself is the flow, so the water is moving in one general direction but the molecules themselves are very mobile in lots of different directions within that flow.

In order to make those wonderful silvery arches I spoke of earlier, you have to make that flow ‘laminar’.

Essentially this means everything is going in one direction within the flow. So all those ping pong balls are raked up and regimented, travelling with the train and only in the direction of the train.

This means that there is significantly less interference within the flow of water molecules (they are not colliding with eachother as much!) so the flow is smooth and stable.

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So how do you make this happen? Simple! Thousands and thousands of straws….

The water is forced through the straws and it is forced into a laminar state.

The final stage is to force the laminar flow from a very large diameter pipe into a very small diameter jet through a razor sharp hole which cuts the flow into a single narrow stream.

Once in a laminar state, water can be thrown quite some distance before the laminar flow is broken through the actions of gravity and interference is once again seen in the stream.

One of the other wonderful attributes about laminar water flows is their ability to carry light within them.

This means you can actually ‘bend’ light through the laminar flow and carry water across the stream, this is particularly effective in small flows.

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So armed with our prototypes we created three large laminar jets for installation at Beautiful Days Festival.

They were a massive success. Something about laminar flowing water is mesmerizing. It doesn’t move like water should, somehow the process creates something new. Like living water, it moves gently, almost pulsing at times and I defy anyone when faced with a laminar flow to resist the urge to gently touch it!

The problem we had, was the jets were such a massive success that the water reservoir we had built which recycled water back to feed each of them was generally empty within an hour of us turning them on!

So many small hands could not resist redirecting the flows that the whole area around the jets turned into a mudbath, which at a music festival is not a huge problem! However, it did mean that we were constantly having to refill the jets.

Eventually we had to limit their use to a few hours per day, this still did not deter our ardent younger fans, who would wait in muddy feral packs for the jets to start up.

It was wet, muddy, anarchy!

I loved every minute of it.

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With the above experience under our belts, we allowed the steep learning curve to adjust our aspirations for the installation at this years Glastonbury Festival.

We decided to create a pair of much, much, smaller, self contained jets. In the hope that this would limit water loss through interactions and would enable us to run the jets constantly.

The fact that this installation was intended for a backstage area also helped as it meant a smaller percentage of feral children utilizing the jets as weapons of mass saturation.

The smaller jets did present a few challenges, as they meant we had to cram a lot into a small space.

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However, after a fair bit of head scratching and a few u-turns we finally ironed out all the kinks (With only a week to spare I should add!).

So our main brief with this installation was that we wanted to create a calm, serence space, with a few wonders and wow moments.

Personally, my internal brief was to create something with water that made people say: “How is that possible!”

With this in mind, and further to the laminar jets, we began experimenting with the idea of propagating ripples across a pool and projecting the resulting interference patterns.

The inspiration for this came from two different sources:

Firstly, I have recently become increasingly interested in the idea of creating visible energy waveforms. This sounds like a very complex idea, but infact it is incredible simple. Ancient cultures have been doing this for centuries through use of objects such as Singing Bowls and Suzu Gongs, which when struck set up resonance patterns in the water stored within them which can be seen. there is also some evidence to suggest that Asian mandala art could have been inspired by these kinds of devices although possibly utilizing sand rather than water.

The idea is that different frequencies of sound create different patterns of ripples in water. So how do we make this happen? Simple, we mount a bass speaker in a pool of water!

Hold on!

That’s not so simple…..Audio speakers are reasonable well known for their dislike of water. Total submersion being a definite no-no.

The second inspiration came from one night soaking in the bath and watching the ceiling dance as the light bounced from the surface of the water. Something we have all done I’m sure.

Our drawing board for this one was a little more complicated, we tried out many different ideas, blew up a few speakers. Broke a few objects, including people. Narrowly avoided catching fire to ourselves and generally made very little progress for quite some time.

Eventually, with even less time to spare than with the jets! We came up with a working prototype.

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We had mounted three lamps beneath the speaker with the intention of up-lighting through the water column. However, this proved to be the wrong approach and incidental lighting proved to be the most effective approach by far ( thanks for that one Mucca).

The results were breathtaking. It definitely had the wow factor we were looking for. I was surprised by just how far we were able to project the ripples.

 Cymatic Bowl Video

So with these two features in place our garden was constructed.

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Laminar Jets Video

It was a huge success. Infact such was its allure that both the BBC and NME magazine chose to undertake their respective interviews of a certain political leader with our garden as a backdrop.

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We were very proud of this installation and we would like to thank all the wonderful people who helped to put it together. There are a great many people who work incredibly hard behind the scenes to make these events happen and it never ceases to amaze me just how dedicated these people are.

Special thanks to Shirley, Martin and Sistah Jo who helped in both big and little ways to put this together.

We were lucky enough to work with an excellent crew who were always ready to help and always ready to offer ideas or solutions when things went wrong.

The truth is that the business of ‘show’ could not operate without them, therefore this garden is dedicated to you, crew of Leftfield.

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Good Vibrations

The work on our installation for this year’s Glastonbury Festival continues with a brand new surprise feature being created. We have used the science of Cymatics to create a feature that uses sound and light waves to create a visually unique experience for its audience. IMG_2316

We started by making a large concrete bowl with a hole in the bottom through which we placed a speaker.

The speaker will produce low frequency sound, between 10 and 100 Hertz. These low frequencies will cause the speaker to oscillate backwards and forwards at different rates depending on the frequency.

 

 

 

 

We also left holes for lights to later be installed at the bottom of the bowl around the speaker. We then had to make the whole thing watertight so that we could safely submerge the speaker in water.

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Our first prototype. Unfortunately we had to scrap this attempt and start again. The depth of the water put too much weight on the speaker causing it to slightly explode!

The vibrations from the speaker will move the water above it and cause it to vibrate at the same frequency.

 

Getting the right depth of water is important. Too shallow means we won’t get the effect we want. Too deep and the weight of the water on the speaker will cause a build up of trapped energy from the compressed vibrations to escape through the bottom of the speaker, blowing the speaker out. Something we learned the hard way!

The water moves in waves out from the speaker to the sides of the bowl where it bounces and starts to move back to the centre, colliding with new waves travelling out.

IMG_2324This collision of opposing waves creates an interference pattern which changes depending on the frequency of the sound being produced by the speaker.

Lower frequencies produce larger, slower movements meaning subtler interference patterns.

Higher frequency waves  produce greater, more intricate interference patterns.

The next stage is to introduce light waves into the equation by lighting the interference pattern from below.

IMG_2340The light waves pass through the peaks and troughs of the interference pattern, creating different frequencies of light due to the different lengths the light has to travel to pass through the surface of the water.

When you look at the water from the surface you should see slightly different tones of colour in the light passing through the interference pattern.

The result should be a moving pattern of light on the surface of the water that reacts with the sound passing through it.

The light pattern will also be reflected on to any objects around the feature as the water amplifies the light outwards.

We will install this feature at Glastonbury with planting hanging over it and where people can get close enough to see the light reflected onto them and the plants around them.

This feature can create a visual effect to accompany any music or sound wave that can be fed through it, a perfect display for an event like Glastonbury.

Check out our Facebook page to see video clips of the feature in action. And keep a look out for updates on our work in the run up to Glastonbury.

 

Cunning Plans & Clever Tricks

We have been hard at work constructing our laminar jet system for our installation at Glastonbury. IMG_2282

We use high pressure pumps and coloured lights to create jets of coloured water. The water is pushed out through a small hole at the end of a covered pipe. The greater the pressure being forced on the water, the farther the jet will travel before it breaks up. By managing the level of pressure acting on the jet of water, we can create a continuous stream of water that can travel as far as we want it to.IMG_2288

We use coloured LED lights under the jets to produce the colour within the jets of water. The light is reflected and refracted on the tightly packed water particles which pull the light along with it until it reaches its destination. The light dissipates as the jet stream breaks up and the water scatters.IMG_2289

These were a huge hit at a similar installation we did at a festival a few years ago, especially with the kids who loved leaping through the coloured jets and returning to their parents wet and happy. A few weary festival-goers even brought shampoo and shower gel along and bathed in the jet stream to avoid the washing facility queues.IMG_2291

Hopefully this year, the jets will be even better as we have been hard at work improving and perfecting our jets.IMG_2292

Visit our Facebook page to see the jets in action.

And check back to see updates on our progress and reactions at the festival.IMG_2293

The Life Aquatic: Diary of an Amphibious Mammal

“The really important thing to remember about water is that it flows. If you’re lucky, it flows where you want it to”IMG_2098

This sentiment was expressed to me by an old, wiry looking farmer many years hence as I was wading my way through a blocked stream wielding a chainsaw with a view to undertaking some aquatic tree surgery.

A fallen Willow, horizontal across the stream following the recent storm. Certainly not dead, perhaps a little inconvenienced but angrily putting forth new growth regardless.

IMG_2164.JPGAgainst its trunk, the water lapped and bubbled. Dropping the occasional water bound fallen branch and an obscene number of plastic bags.

“That’s true” I replied as I was forcing my way through whippy branches and overhanging  blackberry tendrils all with a view to inflicting some form of harm or torment about my person, seemingly offended at my presence in the water.

“I think that people used to be more concerned with keeping waterways clear” I continued.

“Yeah,” the wiry farmer agreed.” That was back when water was useful. Nowadays, all we want to do is get it gone as fast as possible.”

This statement has come back to me many times during my career. As I have found myself dealing with numerous other flow blockages or silting problems.

Time was, our waterways were a part of our industry. Not just in terms of connectivity and movement of goods and materials, but also the water itself.

Time was, water was our fuel. And its flow was as important to our industry as oil is today.

Our management of this flow was undertaken as a necessity to keep the water wheels turning and the jets mining.

Later, as alternative fuels were adopted and as infrastructure grew, our use of water as a fuel began to wain. As a result of this, many of the management systems and the flow control systems which would have been continuously managed and repaired began to fall into disrepair and perhaps more importantly, the men and women who understood the intricacies of managing these systems were forgotten and their valuable knowledge was lost as time moved on.

Later, nature did what it does best.

It reclaimed.

But the might of British industry was tough and endured.

A battle ensued between the relics of the Industrial Age and the natural world and from this epic war of resilient iron and silent insidious roots some of our most treasured landscapes have grown.

When I was a boy I spent an unhealthy amount of time in the Vallis Vale, near Mells in Somerset. Once home to the vast mills and machinery of the Fussels Iron works.

Back then, a stalemate existed between Iron and root. The industry still held fast, defiant and structured. But root and leaf had begun their slow digestion and reclamation. IMG_2122

So existed a fairy-tale landscape of high stone arches, populated with strong young Ash trees and feathery fern fronds. Crumbling walls filled with seeded valerian, licking harts tongues and ancient spleenwort.

Water filled tunnels feeding rusted iron pipes, carpets of moss and saplings, and dark iron slag soils.

It was a strange place.

A place where water, land and man existed together in a somewhat tenuous balance.

Now, the scale has toppled. Much of the stonework has fallen under the weight of those, now older tree roots. The iron has all but turned to rust and the splendour of that balance has receded. The war is over, But above all it is the water that has proved victorious. It has flowed as it saw fit.

Cutting new channels and rivulets, toppling all in its path, be it steel, stone or tree.

It has consumed and retaken and it has done it all unabated and undiminished, safe in the knowledge that it can flow where so ever it chooses and there is nothing that anyone can do about it.IMG_2173.JPG

This week we have been working on a landscape such as this.

A beautiful Mill pond, set into a landscape of fallen industry and slow reclamation.

The mill pond itself was once a part of a wider network of sluiced channels and water level controls designed to maximise and regulate  the flow of the water to gain the maximum efficiency of output for industry.

There would have been one or two wheels mounted within narrow channels to act as engines, driving cogs and belts and grinding stones for milling wool or for wheat and other cereal crops.

Our purpose here is to remove and replace a sluice gate which has failed and has become dangerous.

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The gate itself is original, however the surround is not. The surround is old and now rotten oak and the rot has led to fractures in the timber which have channelled the water into tight flows which have subsequently eroded and damaged the masonry beneath to such an extent that the incredibly thick and solid walls of the mill pond bund are now leaking.

This project has presented many challenges to us. Not least of which being how do we actually work in this environment? In order to remove and replace the gate surround, we must first remove the gate. This is no easy task given the shocking weight of such a solid piece of wrought iron.

Our only option is to build some kind of free standing structure over the gate and winch the gate upwards.IMG_2140

However, this involves us creating a solid base in the mill pond from which we can work.

This itself proves difficult given the large quantities of silt and deposition which has occurred in the pond base over the last one hundred or so years.IMG_2100.JPG

It looks like we will have to dig!

Working in this environment is slow and difficult. Everything is wet and heavy and one small step wrong could land us waist deep in sticky wet silt which is like stepping into quicksand.

With water, it’s always slow, steady and safe.

Once the base is constructed we leave the next stage to the professionals.IMG_2095.JPG

The weight of the gate and the height of the lift mean that a  very solid structure is required to be safe.

The boys at Frome Scaffolding have done a fantastic job and we feel very secure to IMG_2131.JPGundertake what is the most dangerous part of this work and actually, the sturdiness of the structure means that the gate itself lifts out very easily.

As the timber support come away we begin to get a clearer idea of the extent of the damage.

Water is insidious. It is a silent destroyer, flowing and consuming little by little. Inexorable and unstoppable.

Again the sage words of the farmer come back to me.

You cannot make water do anything it doesn’t want to. You can ask it nicely, guide it and hope for the best.IMG_2104.JPG

Beneath the rotten timber we find some badly damaged masonry. Years of water have eroded the stone and the mortar to a soft paste, perfect for infiltration by signal crayfish and other interlopers.

The masonry is so badly damaged that it has to be removed completely.
The cavity that is left is quite staggering.
We quickly re fill this with concrete and repair the damaged masonry.
Our next task is to build a former to seal the repair work back to the dimensions of the new gate surround. This will significantly increase the life of the new surround as it will eliminate the ingress of water behind the gate. Well, as much as it is possible to eliminate anything with water.
Once the former is removed and the surfaces are scraped back and cleaned, we are ready to fit the new gate surround.
This is heavy and dangerous work. We could not estimate how heavy the surround actually is but it is certainly one of the heaviest that we have ever had to fit.
Accidents happen, but life goes on.
After a full day of slow and steady work, the new gate surround is in place.
After a few days the scaffolding and the platform are removed and the new gate is put into use for the first time.
Our work is complete and the new gate is a success. Hopefully it will preserve this beautiful and picturesque remnant of an almost forgotten time for a little longer.

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Spring has Sprung

Spring has officially sprung, the occasional rain storm notwithstanding, and our plants are ready to find new homes in ponds across the country.

We have put the first batch of bare-rooted stock in our eBay store.

We stock marginals and water lilies on our eBay site and send them out to homes all over the UK. We can also provide plants potted in aquatic baskets using our very own blend of aquatic soil. Message us if you would like to know more or if you are local to the Bath area, come visit our nursery when we open in May.